Assessing smoke dispersion in a train station

Optimize evacuation plans and fire protection systems

Smoke propagation in indoor enviroments is extremely threatening for the safety of building occupants in case of fire.
In this case, we conducted a simulation to investigate the dispersion of smoke and carbon monoxide resulting from a car fire at a train station, and how it would possibly impact the evacuation plan. The 5-min transient simulation shows how  the heated smoke ascends from the platform level to the concourse level using various routes, including escalators. The 3D model in IFC format was generated by Revit.

This case study was carried out in collaboration with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Roma Tor Vergata for Italferr, the no.1 Engineering company in Italy.

The objective was to examine the smoke dispersion within a train station and its potential impact on the evacuation plan.

The focus lies on the critical initial 4-5 minutes post-incident, aiming to identify areas where smoke concentration might impede the station evacuation and assessing the duration of such effects.

Video 1  shows the complexity of the IFC model, which includes dozens of staircases and escalators. Multiple rounds of simulations have been run to factor open or closed doorways.

Video 1:  overview showing the complexity of the IFC model

Figure 1 provides a view of the platform level captured half a minute after the accident. 

Adjacent Figure 2 displays the smoke clouds 3 minutes post-incident: the smoke not only enveloped the platforms but also ascended to the concourse level through various pathways, notably escalators. The upward columns of heated smoke within the Concourse level ultimately reach the ceiling and disperse.

Figure 1: view of the platform 1 minute after the accident 

Figure 2: propagation of smoke clouds 3 minutes after the accident




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